Mowa zależna



Mowa zależna zdania twierdzące – Reported speech statements.

Mowa zależna służy do relacjonowania wypowiedzi innych osób przy użyciu parafrazy.  Przekształcając wypowiedź innej osoby z mowy niezależnej, (czyli z dokładnego cytatu) na zależną, musimy w języku angielskim zmienić czas gramatyczny. Na poziomie podstawowym zawsze trzymamy się zasady przesunięcia się o jeden czas gramatyczny do tyłu. Przeanalizuj poniższą tabelę.


 Tabela zmiany czasów.

 

Mowa niezależna ====>  Mowa zależna
Present Simple  ====>  Past Simple
Present Continuous  ====>  Past Continuous
Past Simple  ====>  Past Perfect
Present Perfect  ====>  Past Perfect
can  ====>  could
will  ====>  would
am/is/are  ====>  was/were

Zmianom podlegają także wyrażenia czasowe i zaimki wskazujące.

 

 

Tabela zmiany wyrażeń czasowych i zaimków wskazujące w mowie zależnej.


Mowa niezależna ====>   Mowa zależna
now  ====>  then
today ====>  that day
tonight  ====>  that night
next week  ====>  the next week
yesterday  ====>  the day before
last month  ====>  the month before
last year  ====>  the year before
this  ====>  that
these  ====>  those
here  ====>  there

Oczywiście, aby zdania po przekształceniu pozostawały logiczne, musimy także pamiętać o zmianach zaimków osobowych, określników i zaimków dzierżawczych.

 

Przykładowo:

mowa niezależna :

‘ I live in Poland with my mother,’ she said.

mowa zależna:

She said she lived in Poland with her mother.


Komentarz:

Przekształcając zdanie zmianie uległ:

zaimek osobowy: ( I   ====>    she)

czas gramatyczny:  (Present Simple ====> Past Simple)

określnik dzierżawczy: ( my ====> her)

 


Ćwiczenia – nie używaj form skróconych!

Changes the sentences into reported speech. Zmień zdania na mowę zależną.

‘I saw a strange plant in your garden,’ he said.

He said he had seen() a strange plant in my garden.

‘I am going to school now and I will be there at 7.45.,’ she said.

She said she was going() to school then and she would be() there at 7.45.

They told me: ‘ We have never been here before.’

They told me they had never been() there before.

‘She works in a restaurant and she doesn’t earn a lot of money,’ she said.

She said she worked() in a restaurant and she did not earn() a lot of money.

She said ‘I didn’t go to the cinema last night.’

She said she had not gone() to the cinema the night before.

‘I can’t go with you, ‘he said.

He said he could not go() with me.

The man said ‘I will call them.’

The man said he would call() them.

‘My sister wants to be a nurse but I don’t know why. We don’t have nurses in our family,’ she said.

She said her sister wanted() to be a nurse but she did not know() why. They did not have () nurses in their family.

‘I’m going to study Maths,’ he said.

He said he was going() to study Maths.

‘She has made a terrible mistake!’ she said.

She said she had made() a terrible mistake.

‘I went to work yesterday,’ he said.

He said he had gone() to work the day before().

She said: ‘I know it will be hard but I don’t mind hard work and it will be a good experience.’

She said she knew it would be() hard but she did not mind() hard work and it would be() a good experiences.

Mary said: ‘We moved a house last year.’

Mary said they had moved() a house the year before().

‘I’m living with my parents now but I hope to rent a flat soon,’ he said.

He said he was living() with his parents then() but he hoped() to rent a flat soon.

‘You’ve lost your money,’ he told me.

He told me I had lost() my money.


Więcej ćwiczeń szukajcie pod linkiem Mowa zależna.

Merulka

 

 

 

 


 

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